Finding Aids

Finding Aids

PRIMARY SOURCE FINDING AID

These Finding Aids will help you find primary source documents that have been posted on the corresponding individual worker and camp pages of the  CPS website, where they appear as Other Material.  Please note that there are separate sections devoted to Mental Health Units and Prison, with subheadings under each of these categories.

The Arts
Decision to Join CPS
Descriptions of Camps from Outside Sources
Guinea Pig Experiments
Mental Health
     Descriptions of Mental Hospitals from Outside Sources
     Investigations, Court Cases, etc.
     Mental Hygiene Program/National Mental Health Foundation
     Miscellaneous
     Relations with the Public
     Race
     Relations with Administration or Staff
     Worker Suggestions for/Attempts at Improvement or Reform
     Worker Descriptions of/Reactions to Mental Hospital Work
Miscellaneous
Personal Anecdotes/Accounts of Individuals
Prison
     Walkouts from CPS, Arrests, Trials, etc.
     Descriptions of/Reactions to Prison
     Suggestions for Reform
     Strikes and Other Protests in Prison
Race
Relationships with Administration/Strikes and other Protests in Camps
Relationships with Soldiers and the Public
Smoke Jumpers
Women's Service
Worker Descriptions and Reactions to Camp

The Arts

Lyrics to “Christians at War”

Lyrics to “Opposition to Conscription” and “Our Old and Dusty Loam”

Lyrics to “The CO Blues” and “Who’s Going Next?”

Lyrics to “The Wickiup Artillery” and “Money Patriots”

Decision to Join CPS

Interview with Paul Foster

Interview with Richard Mundy

Recollections of Roland Smith

Reflections from Harold Barton

Reflection from J. Robert Kreider

Reflections from Mary Ellen Stucky

Reflection from Willard Krabill

Descriptions of Camps from Outside Sources

 “36 Young CO’s Shoulder Shovels in Camp to Satisfy Consciences”

“151 Conscientious Objectors Camped for Duration”

CO’s in Montgomery County

“Observations and Conclusions

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 3 no. 5

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 3 no. 6

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 6 no. 4

“Weeping Water Conchie Camp”      

Guinea Pig Experiments

“Ethics and the Guinea Pig Experiments”

Interview with Ernest Barr

Pages from “What Happens When People Starve”

Reflections from Benjamin Candee

Reflections from Daryl Wenger

Reflection from Samuel Allen Shirk

“Youths Start Fourth Sleepless Day” and other clippings

Mental Health

    See below

Miscellaneous

Reflections from Mary Ellen Stucky

Interview with Calvin Hilty [German prisoners]

Personal Anecdotes//Accounts of Individuals

A Sunday Afternoon”

“CPS: Lighter Moments”

Excerpt from “The Patapsco Peacemaker”

Lew Ayres Newspaper Clippings

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 3 no. 5

Profile of Arthur Hensgen

Profile of Charles Martin

Profile of Charles Wolf

Profile of Irvin Horst

Profile of Lloyd Hunsberger

Profile of Lloyd Shelley

Profile of Lloyd Weed

Profile of Otis Grogan

Profile of Wilbur Stickrath

Reflection from M. Franklin Brunk

Reflection from Oliver Petty
Reflection from Edwin P. Stephenson

Prison

    See below

Race

Interview with Charles Cooley

Reflection from Chris Ahrens

Reflections from David Beals

Reflections from Emanual Hertzler

Reflections from Joe Coffin

Relationships with Administration//Strikes and Other Protests in Camps

“A War of Nerves”

“Bishop Ends 44 Days”

“Christmas Spirit Backfires” and other clippings

Glendora Strikers’ Defense Committee Pamphlet

Interview with Clayton James

“Objectors Without Conscience”

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 6 no. 4

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 8 no. 1

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 8 no. 5

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 8 no. 6

Reflection from Barry Hollister

Reflection from John Cotton

Resignation of Camp Manager

“War is Over—‘Conchies’ Want Out”

Relationships with Soldiers and the Public

“Christmas Spirit Backfires” and other clippings

Interview with Arthur Snell

Interview with Charles Cooley

Interview with Charles Davis

Interview with Charles Jehnzen

Interview with Jasper Garner

Interview with Pius Gibble

Interview with Robert Lam

Interview with Verna Curtis

Letter to the Attorney General, March 1945

“My Life as a Conscientious Objector”
Reflections from Allen S. Bacon

Reflections from Daniel Diener

Reflections from Emanual Hertzler

Reflection from Glen Crago

Reflection from J. Robert Kreider

Reflections from John Lehman

Reflection from John Oyer

Reflection from Luke Birky

Reflection from John Harnish

Reflection from Marvin Stucky

Reflection from Murray Braden

Reflections from Paul Hertzler

Reflections from Paul Sauder

Reflection from Ray Horst

Reflection from Raymond Sala

Reflection from Raymond Yeackly

Reflection from Ted Klopfenstein

Reflection from Victor Goering        

Short Story by William Weber

Smoke Jumpers

“Fire on the Mountain”

Interview with Calvin Hilty

Reflections from David Beals

Reflection from Elmer Neufeld

Reflections from Nicholas Helburn

Reflection from Paul Jernigan

Reflection from Richard Lehman

“Smoke Jumpers”

Women’s Service

“Diary of an Ypsilanti, Michigan, C.O. Girl”

Reflections from Joe Coffin

“Service to Mental Hospitals,” by Elizabeth Janet Gray

Women’s Service in Mental Hospitals

Worker Descriptions of/Reactions to Camp

Interview with Ernest Barr

Interview with Paul Foster

Interview with Robert Lam

Letter from John Morgan, August 1943

“My Life as a Conscientious Objector”

“Reflections at the End of an Era”

Reflections from Kenneth Garver

Reflections from Robert Walker

Reflections from Roy Denlinger

Reflections from Russell Hertzler

Statement by Charles Czap

Mental Health

**Many CPS workers were shocked and troubled by the conditions they discovered as they entered work in mental hospitals. The sources below document their experiences, including a variety of efforts towards improving these conditions. One such effort was the formation of the Mental Hygiene Program of Civilian Public Service, which was started by members of CPS unit #49 in Philadelphia. This organization continued even after CPS ended and eventually grew into the National Mental Health Foundation.

Descriptions of Mental Hospitals from Outside Sources      

Article from “PM,” April 1946

Article from “The Philadelphia Record,” May 1946

"Conchies Fill Vital Gap at Hospital”

Excerpt from “Servicemen in White”

Letter to the Editor by L. L. Dunnington

“Mennonites Help to Solve Institution Labor Problem,” in The Evening Bulletin   

Investigations, Court Cases, etc.

Earl Leinbach’s comments on suggested press release

Grand Jury Report on Cleveland State Hospital

Letter from Earl Leinbach to Albert Gaeddert

Letter from Earl Leinbach to P.F. Hopkins

Page from “The Cleveland Press,” July 1944

Page from “The Cleveland Press,” March 1945

Pages from “The Compass,” Fall 1944

Mental Hygiene Program/National Mental Health Foundation

“A Line from 49”

Article from “The Philadelphia Record,” May 1946

“By the Way”

“CO’s and Mental Health: An Assignment Unfinished”

CPS Contributions to Institutions

“From a Training School”

Letter from Charles Lord

Letter from Erwin Goering to Pete Goertzen, April 1945

Letter from Harold Barton, June 1945

Letter from Pete Goertzen to Erwin Goering, April 1945

Letter to Dr. Menninger

Memo to State Mental Health Organizations

Memorials to CPS Mental Hospital Service

Mental Hygiene Program of Civilian Public Service

Mental Hygiene Program letter from Harmon Wilkinson

Mental Hygiene Program letter from Leonard Edelstein

Mental Hygiene Program Pamphlet

Mental Hygiene Program Purpose Statement

Mental Hygiene Program Summary Statement

Mental Hygiene Program Survey

National Mental Health Foundation Pamphlet

Organization of the Mental Hygiene Program

“Our Own Mote, First!”

Pages from “One Out of Twenty-Two”

“Philadelphia Story”

Progress and Action Report

Reflections from Harold Barton

Report on Federal Legislation, January 1946

Miscellaneous

Poem in “The Unifier.” March 10, 1945

“The Infestation: a memoir by Paul Klassen”

“They Would Have Invited Nazis to Dinner Here”

Relations with the Public

“In Retrospect,” from The Seagull

Interview with Don and Pauline Fillmore

Letter from Edward Belan to Robert Kreider, May 1945

Letter from Larry Burkhalter to J. N. Byler, April 1944

Letter from Loris Habegger to J. N. Byler, November 1943

Notes from Camp Council, March 1944

Reflections from Daniel Diener

Race

The Perfect Slave

Relations with Administration or Staff

“Christmas Spirit Backfires” and other clippings

“Conchies Fill Vital Gap at Hospital”

Earl Leinbach’s comments on suggested press release

First Weekly Report, November 1943

“Hospital Unit Report,” Robert Kreider. February 1944.

Letter from Arthur P. Noyes, Superintendent of Norristown State Hospital

Letter from Bertran Smucker to Dr. John R. Ross, May 1945

Letter from Bertran Smucker to Robert Kreider, May 1945

Letter from Boyd Nelson to J.N. Byler, March 1944

Letter from Earl Heisey to J. N. Byler, May 1943

Letter from Earl Heisey to J. N. Byler, February 1944

Letter from Earl Leinbach to Albert Gaeddert

Letter from Ernest Goertz to Warren Leatherman, July 1946

Letter from Harold Duerksen to Bertran Smucker, April 1946

Letter from Landis Martin to Dr. Henry Fast, November 1942

Letter from Larry Burkhalter to J. N. Byler, April 1944

Letter from Loris Habegger to J. N. Byler, May 1943

Letter from Lotus Troyer to J. N. Byler, May 1944

Letter from Menno Holdeman to Esko Loewen, November 1942

Letter from O. R. Yoder, Superintendent of Ypsilanti State Hospital

Letter to J. N. Byler from Alfred Zook et al, November 1943

Memorandum on Visit to New Jersey State Hospital

Newsletter June 1945

Notes from Camp Council, March 1944

Reflection from J. Hobart Goering

“Report on Baseball Activity”

Rethinking Our Position”

Statement regarding “dismissal,” 1945

“The News Sheet”

“Visit to Western State Hospital” by J. N. Byler, March 1943

“Ypsilanti—A Modern Institution”

Worker Suggestions for/Attempts at Improvement or Reform

“An Evaluation of the Work Done on Ward 41”

Article from “The Unifier,” June 24, 1944 [??]

Article from “The Unifier,” August 5, 1944 [??]

“Choosing a Second Mile”

Committee for Improvement of Patient Care

CPS Contributions to Institutions

Excerpt from “Humiliation of Patients”

Excerpts from William Ryan’s daily log, 1946

Excerpt of Letter from Roland Smith

Exeter Excerpts

“First Year of C.P.S. #85”

“Homage to COs” from a patient

Letter from Bertran Smucker to Robert Kreider, April 1945

Letter from Bertran Smucker to Robert Kreider, May 1945

Letter from Boyd Nelson to Elmer Ediger, May 1944

Letter from Boyd Nelson to J.N. Byler, March 1944

Letter from Charles Lord

Letter from Chester Wenger to Mr. Nash (Superintendent), March 1944

Letter from David Anderson

Letter from Donald Engle to Albert Gaeddert, August 1944

Letter from Earl Heisey to J. N. Byler, February 1944

Letter from Ernest Goertz to Warren Leatherman, August 1946

Letter from J. Willard Linscheid to Albert Gaeddert, August 1944

Letter from Robert Barrus, January 1943

Letter from Robert Kreider to Dr. O. R. Yoder, October 1944

Letter from Vernon Rocke to Harmon Wilkinson, February 1946

“Living Our Beliefs”

“Mennonites Help to Solve Institution Labor Problem,” in The Evening Bulletin   

“Opportunity of the Church”

“Our Own Mote, First!”

Page from “Newsette,” February 1946

Page from “Release,” March 1946

Pages from “One Out of Twenty-Two”

Pages from “The Compass,” Fall 1944

“Preliminary Observations”

Reflections from Charlie Lord

Reflections from Edwin Schrag

Rethinking Our Position”

“Rubbing Elbows”

Statement regarding “dismissal,” 1945

“The Acid Bath”

“The Long Term Possibilities of Mental Hospital Service”

“The News Sheet”

“Treatment of Mental Patients”

Worker Descriptions of /Reactions to Mental Hospital Work

“After One Year: Reactions”

“An Evaluation of the Work Done on Ward 41”

“An Over the Shoulder Glance”

Articles from “The Unifier,” July 22, 1944

Brethren Service Committee Publication

“Bring That Smile With You”

“Diary of an Ypsilanti, Michigan, C.O. Girl”

Excerpt from “Observation and Introspection”

Excerpt from “Servicemen in White”

Excerpts from William Ryan’s daily log, 1946

Excerpts from “Work of National Importance”

First Weekly Report, November 1943

“First Year of C.P.S. #85”

“From a Training School”

“Hospital Unit Report,” Robert Kreider. February 1944.

“In Retrospect,” from The Seagull

Interview with Roland Smith

Letter from Boyd Nelson to Elmer Ediger, May 1944

Letter from Chester Wenger to Mr. Nash (Superintendent), March 1944

Letter from Earl Heisey to J. N. Byler, May 1943

Letter from Earl Leinbach to Esko Loewen

Letter from Ernest Goertz to Warren Leatherman, August 1946

Letter from Gordon Zahn

Letter from Harold Duerksen to Bertran Smucker, April 1946

Letter from John Morgan, August 1943

Letter from Landis Martin to J. N. Byler, May 1943

Letter from Loris Habegger to J. N. Byler, May 1943

Letter from Marshall Sutton to J. Huston Westover, August 1943

Letter from Matthew Brubaker to Robert Kreider

Letter from Menno Holdeman to Esko Loewen, November 1942

Letter from Pete Goertzen to Erwin Goering, April 1945

Letter from Robert Barrus, January 1943

Letter from Roland Smith to his sister, January 1943

Letter from Ted Neff, December 1945

Letter from Vernon Rocke to Harmon Wilkinson, February 1946

“Letters from the Camps”

“Mental Hospitals”

“My Experience at C.P.S. #69”

“My Life as a Conscientious Objector”

“Observations and Impressions”

Page from “Release,” March 1946

Page from “Release,” November 1944

Page from “SCUPPS,” June 27, 1946

“Preliminary Observations”

Reactions after one month (Sept.-Oct. 1943), by Roland Smith

Recollections of Roland Smith

Reflection from David Bixler, February 1945

Reflection from David Kanagy, February 1945

Reflections from Harold Barton

Reflection from Harvey Musser

Reflections from Kenneth Garver

Reflections from Paul A. Wilhelm

Reflection from Russel Souder

Reflections from Vance Geier

Report of Trip to Norristown State Hospital

“Soliloquy of a C.O. Upon Beginning His Third Year in a Mental Hospital”

“Staunton—Treatment of Mental Illness”

“The Living Dead Man”

“What’s Doin’??”

“Work of National Importance”

“You Must Have Patience to Work With Patients”

“Ypsilanti—A Modern Institution”

Prison

**A number of men were arrested and/or sentenced to prison for walking out of CPS, and the following sources include some of their stories. Here you will also find information regarding many other conscientious objectors who were never in CPS but rather were sentenced for refusing to cooperate with the draft in a variety of ways.

Walkouts from CPS, Arrests, Trials, etc.

Interview with Clayton James

Interview with Juanita Nelson

Interview with Kemper Nomland

Interview with Mark Rouch

Interview with Paul Foster

Interview with Robert Lam

Page from The Conscientious Objector vol. 7 no. 9

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 3 no. 5

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 3 no. 6

Prison Clippings

Reflections from Benjamin Candee

Reflections from Bent Andresen
Reflections from Leonard Stark

Reflections from Robert Walker

Descriptions of/Reactions to Prison

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 6 no. 4

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 8 no. 2

The Conscientious Objector, Special Release

The Conscientious Objector, Springfield Section

Suggestions for Reform

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 3 no. 5 

The Conscientious Objector, Special Release

The Conscientious Objector, Springfield Section

Strikes and Other Protests in Prison

“A War of Nerves”

“Conscience in Prison”

Interview with Juanita Nelson

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 7 no. 8

Page from The Conscientious Objector vol. 7 no. 9

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 8 no. 2

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 8 no. 6

Pages from The Conscientious Objector vol. 8 no. 5

Prison Clippings